31 July, 2012

Redescription of the common Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus

A redescription of the common Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus (Herbst, 1800) (Buthidae) has recently been published by Rolando Teruel and Luis de Armas. The paper has many color pictures. The paper is in Spanish so this comment is based on the English abstract.

Rhopalurus junceus (Herbst 1800) is redescribed, with the designation of a neotype and the emendation of the type locality of this scorpion, which is endemic from Cuba and widely distributed over most of the archipelago. Also, a detailed study is presented on its morphometric, chromatic, morphological, and meristic variability, as well as its complete postembryonic development (using the direct method), and also abundant information is given on its ecology.

Teruel R, de Armas LF. Redescripcion de Rhopalurus junceus (Herbst 1800) (Scorpiones: Buthidae). Boletin de la SEA. 2012(50):153-74.

Thanks to Rolando for sending me this paper!

Family Buthidae

A new Rhopalurus from eastern Cuba

Rolando Teruel and Luis de Armas have recently described a new species of Rhopalurus Thorell, 1876 (Buthidae) from the desert coast of eastern Cuba.

Rhopalurus aridicola Teruel & Armas, 2012

A identification key for species of Rhopalurus in Cuba is presented. The paper is in Spanish so this comment is based on the English abstract.

A new species of the genus Rhopalurus Thorell 1876 is described which is endemic to the desert coast of the easternmost tip of Cuba and exhibits a very interesting combination of characters, some of which are very peculiar. Also, some aspects of the geographical distribution, ecology, and biogeography of the Antillean representatives of Rhopalurus are briefly discussed; one of them is suggested to be an invalid taxon. With this new addition, the Antillean fauna of the genus is composed by 10 species: six in Cuba, three in Hispaniola, and one in Puerto Rico (Mona Island).

Teruel R, de Armas LF. Nueva especie de Rhopalurus Thorell, 1876 de Cuba Oriental, con algunas consideraciones sobre sos congeneres Antillanos (Scorpiones: Buthidae). Boletin de la SEA. 2012(50):209-17.

Thanks to Rolando for sending me this paper!

Family Buthidae

27 July, 2012

New and extended edition of popular German scorpion book

The German scorpion book "Skorpione" by Mahsberg, Lippe and Kallas published in 1999 was a well written and informative book. Dr. Dieter Mahsberg has now informed me that a new, revised and extended version of the book has recently been published. I have not yet read the book, but I'm quite sure that the book will be of great interest for scorpion hobbyists and others with an interest in scorpions.I will be back with a more detailed review after I get the book.

The book can be ordered from Natur and Tier Verlag.

Mahsberg, Lippe & Kallas (2012)
Skorpione - Lebensraum, Haltung, Nachzucht.
ISBN 978-3-86659-165-3 (144 pages)

From the publisher:
Skorpione faszinieren durch ihr urtümliches, bizarres Erscheinungsbild ebenso wie durch überaus spannende Verhaltensweisen. Diese komplett überarbeitete, neu gestaltete und um zehn Artporträts erweiterte Auflage des Klassikers schlechthin zum Thema Skorpione schildert ausführlich die Biologie der Tiere und bietet alle Informationen, die Terrarianer zu ihrer sicheren, artgerechten sowie erfolgreichen Pflege und Nachzucht benötigen. Darüber hinaus liefert die Vielzahl der Artsteckbriefe konkrete Haltungshinweise zu den vorgestellten Skorpionen.

PS! If you haven't yet guessed it, the book is published in German.

25 July, 2012

Two new species of Tityus and a revison of Tityus clathratus

Wilson Lourenco is continuing his great work on the complex genus Tityus C. L. Koch, 1836 (Buthidae) from South America. This is the largest scorpion genus with its 211 species (The scorpion Files). Professor Lourenco has now published two new Tityus species.

Tityus grahami Lourenco, 2012 (Brazil)
Tityus mana Lourenco, 2012 (French Guiana)

A revised diagnosis for Tityus clathratus C. L. Koch is also presented.

The type material of Tityus (Archaeotityus) clathratus C. L. Koch, originally described from “Cabo da Boa Esperança” (Cape of Good Hope) in South Africa is reanalyzed. Since no Tityus species exist in Africa, this locality is obviously fallacious. Descriptions of historical expeditions to South America may suggest that the possible American type locality should be in Venezuela rather than in Guyana as often indicated by several authors. Two new species, close to T. (A.) clathratus, are respectively described from French Guiana and from the region of the Upper Rio Negro in Brazilian Amazon.

Lourenco WR. Further considerations on Tityus (Archaeotityus) clathratus C. L. Koch, 1844 and description of two associated new species (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Boletin de la SEA. 2012(50):277-83.

Thanks to professor Lourenco for sending me this paper!

Metabolic cost of venom regeneration and venom complexity in Parabuthus transvaalicus

It has previously has been showed that venom use is costly, both in terms of metabolic and ecological costs (Nisani et al, 2007; Nisani, 2008), that some scorpions have two types of venom with different composition (and different "production costs") (Inceoglu et al., 2003) and that Parabuthus transvaalicus Purcell, 1899 (Buthidae) are able to regulate venom use at different levels (Click here for more information).

Zia Nisani and co-workers have now further confirmed the relatively high cost of venom regeneration and also have shown that greater venom complexity can be associated with higher cost of venom production.

We investigated the biochemical profile of regenerated venom of the scorpion Parabuthus transvaalicus in relation to its metabolic cost and toxicity. Using a closed-system respirometer, we compared oxygen consumption between milked and unmilked scorpions to determine the metabolic costs associated with the first 192 h of subsequent venom synthesis. Milked scorpions had a substantially (21%) higher mean metabolic rate than unmilked scorpions, with the largest increases in oxygen consumption occurring at approximately 120 h, 162 h, and 186 h post-milking. Lethality tests in crickets indicated that toxicity of the regenerated venom returned to normal levels within 4 d after milking. However, the chemical profile of the regenerated venom, as evaluated by FPLC and MALDITOF mass spectrometry, suggested that regeneration of different venom components was asynchronous. Some peptides regenerated quickly, particularly those associated with the scorpion’s “prevenom,” whereas others required much or all of this time period for regeneration. This asynchrony could explain the different spikes detected in oxygen consumption of milked scorpions as various peptides and other venom components were resynthesized. These observations confirm the relatively high metabolic cost of venom regeneration and suggest that greater venom complexity can be associated with higher costs of venom production.

Nisani Z, Boskovic DS, Dunbar SG, Kelln W, Hayes WK. Investigating the chemical profile of regenerated scorpion (Parabuthus transvaalicus) venom in relation to metabolic cost and toxicity. Toxicon. 2012;60(3):315-23. [Subscription required for full text]

24 July, 2012

Scorpionism in Iran - An updated review

Hemiscorpius lepturus is the most dangerous scorpion in Iran. Male (left) and female (top). Photos Morteza Johari (C)

 There have been several published papers on scorpions of medical importance in Iran and it is well known that Hemiscorpius lepturus Peters, 1861 and Androctonus crassicauda (Oliver, 1807) are the most dangerous species causing both deaths and serious mortality, but literature on other species have been scarce and7or anecdotal.

Rouhullah Dehghani and Behrooz Fathi have now published an updated review on Iranian scorpionism discussing current knowledge on the medical importance of all relevant Iranian species. The paper has also information on the distribution of mentioned species and sting treatment. A few color pictures illustrate how bad H. lepturus envenomations can get in children.

It should be noticed that this paper report of of death of a 10 year old boy attributed to Orthochirus scrobiculosus (Grube, 1873). As far as I know, this is the first published case of serious envenomations in this genus, which usually is considered docile and harmless. It is tempting to ask if it is possible that the scorpions involved has not been correctly identified (maybe an juvenile A. crassicauda was involved), but until the medical status of this genus has been properly investigated it is important to be careful with scorpions belonging to Orthochirus.

Among Middle Eastern countries, at least 52 species of scorpions, especially dangerous types, have been reported in Iran. This is more than any other country in the region. In addition, in Iran the recorded scorpion stings from 2001 to 2009 were more than 42,500 per year, of which, approximately 19.5 deaths have been reported each year, mostly in spring and summer. About 10 species are responsible for the reported envenoming which belong to the Buthidae family apart from Hemiscorpius lepturus which is a Hemiscorpiidae. The Buthidae family includes: Androctonus crassicauda, Mesobuthus eupeus, Odontobuthus doriae, Hottentotta saulcyi, Hottentotta schach, Compsobuthus matthiesseni, Orthochirus scrobiculosus, Apistobuthus pterygocercus and Olivierus caucasicus. A. crassicauda and H. lepturus are usually cited as the most dangerous species among Iranian scorpions. This article focuses on the main Iranian scorpions and their geographical distribution, especially those which are medically important and considered to be the more dangerous to human, and also attempts to demonstrate an accurate magnitude of scorpion stings in Iran.

Dehghani R, Fathi B. Scorpion sting in Iran: A review. Toxicon. 2012;60(5):919-33. [Subscription required for full text]

Scorpionism in Central America - a review

Tityus pachyurus is the species responsible for most sever envenomation cases in Panama. Photo: Dr. Carlos Viquez
Scorpionism in North America and South America is pretty well documented, but there have been few reports on scorpions of medical importance in Central America. This has probably been due to the scarcity of data for the region.

Borges and co-workers have now published a very good review article summing up the current knowledge of scorpionism in Central America with a special focus on Panama. Scorpions of medical importance includes species in the genera Centruroides (12 species) Marx, 1890 and Tityus C. L. Koch, 1836 (8 species). Species in the former genera seem to have minor medical importance in Central America, while at least four species in Tityus have been implicated in deaths and severe envenomations in Panama (and possible also in Costa Rica). Species of medical importance are:

Tityus asthenes Pocock, 1893
T. cerroazul Lourenço, 1986
T. festae Borelli, 1899
T. pachyurus Pocock, 1897

Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua have no documented cases of serious scorpion envenomations (but also lack the presence of Tityus).

 Scorpionism in the Americas occurs mainly in Mexico, northern South America and southeast Brazil. This article reviews the local scorpion fauna, available health statistics, and the literature to assess scorpionism in Central America. Notwithstanding its high toxicity in Mexico, most scorpion sting cases in Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica are produced by species in the genus Centruroides that are only mildly toxic to humans despite the existence of ion channel-active toxins in their venoms. Regional morbidity is low with the exception of Panama, where an incidence of 52 cases per 100,000 inhabitants was recorded for 2007, with 28 deaths from 1998 to 2006. Taxa belonging to the genus Tityus (also present in the Atlantic coast of Costa Rica) are responsible for fatalities in Panama, with Tityus pachyurus being the most important species medically. Most Tityus species inhabiting Panama are also found in northern South America from which they probably migrated upon closure of the Panamanian isthmus in the Miocene era. Incorporation of Panama as part of the northern South American endemic area of scorpionism is thereby suggested based on the incidence of these accidents and the geographical distribution of Panamanian Tityus species.

Borges A, Miranda RJ, Pascale JM. Scorpionism in central America, with special reference to the case of Panama. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases. 2012;18(2):130-43. [Free full text]

Thanks to Jacek Szubert for informing me about this paper!

23 July, 2012

Rhopalurus junceus venom in alternative cancer treatment

Rhopalurus junecus from Cuba. Photo: Rick West (C)

The venom from the Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus (Herbst, 1800) (Buthidae) has been used in alternative cancer treatment for several years, but there have been few if any systematic, scientific studies of the venom and its effects on cancerous conditions. Di Lorenzo and co-workers now report of a patient case where the patient experienced an unexpected total pain relief and other positive effects after using the medicine "Escozul" (based on the venom of R. junceus).

It is important to stress that this is no proof that the venom of Rhopalurus contains superior anti-cancer components, but it is an indication that it is important that the venom of this species is subjected to more research to uncover the working components and also to get clinical evidence for its therapeutic effects (similar to what has been done with the venom of Leiurus quinquestriatus and other species).

During the management of cancer pain sometimes patients ask for alternative, unusual, non recognized approaches. Last year we followed a cancer patient treated with an active substance that is the venom of blue scorpions endemic to Cuba, called Rhopalurus junceus “Escozul” that experienced an unexpected total pain relief with a good recovery of muscle strength, vital energy and capacity to cope with daily activities such as meal, walking and interacting with relatives and caregivers. Researchers' working on the blue scorpion venom published preliminary data online referring of postulate antitumoral activity in human tumors in vivo and analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities in experimental models in vitro and in vivo but unfortunately actual available clinical data are not results coming from recognized Randomized Controlled Trials supervised by appropriate IRB regulatory bodies but in a recent paper published on Toxicon in July 2011 Garcia-Gomez et al. describe the first general biochemical, molecular and functional characterization of the venom. What it is sure is this venom certainly warrant further investigation.

Di Lorenzo L, Chiara P, Antonio C, Calogero F. Cancer pain managment with a venom of blue scorpion endemic in Cuba, called rhopalurus junceus "escozul". Open Cancer Journal. 2012;5(1):1-2. [Free full text]

20 July, 2012

A new Buthoscorpio from India

Wilson Lourenco has described a new species of Buthoscorpio Werner, 1936 (Buthidae) from India. The genus' status so for is also discussed, including a redescription of B. sarasinorum (Karsch, 1891).

Buthoscorpio indicus Lourenco, 2012

Considerations regarding the taxonomy and distribution of the species belonging to the genus Buthoscorpio Werner, 1936 are proposed. A revised redescription is proposed for Buthoscorpio sarasinorum (Karsch, 1891) and a new species, Buthoscorpio indicus sp. n., is described from north-central India. Even with the description of this new species, Buthoscorpio remains a very enigmatic genus with a limited range of distribution in India and Sri Lanka. The total number of known species in this genus is raised to four: three in India and one in Sri Lanka.

Lourenco WR. Further taxonomic considerations on the genus Buthoscorpio Werner, 1936 (Scorpiones, Buthidae), with description of a new species from India. Boletin de la SEA. 2012(50):187-92.

Thanks to professor Lourenco and Gerard Dupre for both sending me this paper!

Family Buthidae

Many scorpion articles published in Boletin de la S.E.A. is now available online

The journal Boletin de la S.E.A. published by Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa (S.E.A.) regularly publish scorpion articles. The publisher has now made all articles published in the last six year freely available on their website. See message from editor Antonio Melic:

Dear Colleagues,

In the last 6 years the journal Boletín de la S.E.A. has published about 200
articles and papers on arachnology.

A complete index of all published articles (about 200: Vol. 37-49, October
2005 - December 2011) is available on the website of the SEA.
The articles include descriptions of 133 new taxa (including several genera
and 72 n. sp. of Scorpions, 5 genera and 15 new species of Schizomida, news
Araneae, Amblypygi, Thelyphonida, Solifugae, etc..).
Several studies dealing with ecology, biology, fauna, ethnology... on
All items can be viewed in pdf format.


With warm regards

Antonio Melic
Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa (S.E.A.)
Avda. Radio Juventud, 37
50012 Zaragoza (España)

A great initiative from S.E.A.!

19 July, 2012

A new Buthus species from Spain

The study of the genus Buthus (Leach, 1815) (Buthidae) in Africa and Europe is really in focus these days. Andrea Rossi has now discovered a new Buthus species in Andalusia (Malaga province) in Spain. Spain has now four known Buthus species.

Buthus elongatus Rossi, 2012

The discovery of the new species is based both on molecular and morphological evidence. The paper has an identification key for all European Buthus species.

Two new species of the genus Buthus (Leach, 1815) were described in 2004 in Spain: B. montanus Lourenço & Vachon, 2004 and B. ibericus Lourenço & Vachon, 2004. Gantenbein & Largiadèr (2003) distinguished divergent clades among European Buthus in their phylogenetic analysis. Subsequently, Sousa et al. (2010) reported five distinct mtDNA lineages within Buthus from the Iberian Peninsula, two of which they reported for the first time. In the present work, a new species, Buthus elongatus n. sp., is described, which is most similar to one of the two lineages of Sousa et al. (2010): samples Sc 98 and Sc 99, lineage 3 in their study, from southern Spain, which resemble Buthus occitanus morphologically, but differ from the other specimens of this species by 8.6%. A key for all European Buthus and a summary of their distribution are provided.

Rossi, A. (2012). Notes on the distribution of the species of the genus Buthus (Leach, 1815) (Scorpiones, Buthidae) in Europe, with a description of a new species from Spain. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 15(8):273–279.

Thanks to Andrea Rossi for sending me the paper!

Family Buthidae

18 July, 2012

A new Ananteris from Brazil

Wilson Lourenco has recently described a new species of Ananteris Thorell 1891 (Buthidae) from Northeastern Brazil.

Ananteris bonito Lourenco, 2012

A new species of the genus Ananteris Thorell has been discovered in Brazil. Ananteris bonito sp. n. is described from one single male collected in the region of the Parnaíba River delta in the state of Piauí, Brazil. This is the first record of an Ananteris species for this Brazilian state. The number of Ananteris species described from the Northeast region of Brazil is raised to seven. The number of Ananteris species known for the scorpion fauna of Brazil is now raised to 21.
Lourenco, WR. (2012). The genus Ananteris Thorell, 1891 (Scorpiones, Buthidae) in the Northeastern region of Brazil and description of a new species. Boletin del la SEA (50):73-76.

Family Buthidae

14 July, 2012

A new Euscorpius from Central Italy

It is known that the Euscorpius Thorell, 1876 (Euscorpiidae) fauna of Greece and Balkans are unresolved, but it is for me a little surprising that a new species has now been described from Central Italy by Gioele Tropea. The total number of Italian Euscorpius species is now 10.

Euscorpius celanus Tropea, 2012

The new species is so far only know from the Celano area in the Abruzzo region in Central Italy.

A new species of the genus Euscorpius Thorell, 1876 is described based on specimens collected at the locality Celano (AQ), Abruzzo, central Italy. It is characterized by a peculiar trichobothrial pattern (eba = 5-5 + eb = 4-4), a large number of pectine teeth, and a general colouration which is dark brownish, with legs and telson yellowish. With the description of this new species a new trichobothrial pattern is described. The number of Euscorpius species in Italy is thus raised to ten, and the number of species in the subgenus Euscorpius to five.

Tropea, G. (2012). A new species of Euscorpius Thorell, 1876 (Scorpiones, Euscorpiidae) from Italy. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 15 (8):253–259.

Thanks to Gioele Tropea for sending me his article!

Family Euscorpiidae

11 July, 2012

A new Plesiochactas from Guatemala

Rony Trujillo and Luis de Armas have recently published a new species of Plesiochactas Pocock, 1900 (Euscorpiidae) from Guatemala.

Plesiochactas vasquezi Trujillo & Armas, 2012

A new species of the scorpion genus Plesiochactas Pocock, 1900 is described on the basis of a single female specimen from the Cerro San Gil Spring Protection Reserve, Izabal department, Guatemala. It differs from P. dilutus Karsch, 1881 by lacking the median carina of sternite VII and from P. mitchelli Soleglad, 1976 by having a higher pectinal tooth count and by the presence of fulcra.

Trujillo RE & de Armas, LF. (2012). Nueva Especie de Plesiochactas Pocock, 1900
(Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae) de Guatemala. Boletin de la SEA (50):263-266.

Thanks to Rony Trujillo for sending me this paper!

Family Euscorpiidae

Three new Pandinus from East Africa and a revision of the subgenus Pandinurus

Frantisek Kovarik his continuing his revision of the genus Pandinus Thorell, 1876 (Scorpionidae). He has now published a revision of the subgenus Pandinurus Fet, 1997 from East Africa. Three new species are described and one species is raised to species level from synonymization.

Pandinus awashensis Kovarik, 2012 (new species from Ethiopia)
Pandinus lowei Kovarik, 2012 (new species from Democratic Republic of Congo)
Pandinus somalilandus Kovarik, 2012 (new species from Somaliland)
Pandinus sudanicus Hirst, 1911 (raised to species status from synonymization with P. magrettii, 1901)

The paper has several high quality color photos of scorpions and habitats and also an updated key for the subgenus.

Pandinus (Pandinurus) awashensis sp. n. from Ethiopia, P. (P.) somalilandus sp. n. from Somaliland, and P. (P.) lowei sp. n. from Democratic Republic of Congo are described and compared with other species of the subgenus. P. (P.) sudanicus Hirst, 1911 stat. n. previously considered a synonym of P. (P.) magrettii Borelli, 1901 is recognized as a valid species. New data on taxonomic characters and distribution of the subgenus Pandinurus are presented. Also presented are a map of distribution, photos of the localities and a key to species using hitherto unpublished characters of the tarsomere spination formula and sexual dimorphism.

Kovarik, F.(2012). Review of the subgenus Pandinurus Fet, 1997 with descriptions of three new species (Scorpiones, Scorpionidae, Pandinus). Euscorpius (141):1-22. [Free full text]

Family Scorpionidae

10 July, 2012

A new Buthus from Egypt

As I have mentioned several times in this blog, the taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus Buthus Leach, 1815 (Buthidae) is a challenge, but fortunately there is an increasing research interest in this genus. Wilson Lourenco has now published a new species from Egypt.

Buthus egyptiensis Lourenco, 2012

During the last decade, the genus Buthus Leach, 1815 (family Buthidae) was the subject of several studies. These concerned in particular the ‘Buthus occitanus’ complex of species. Several populations previously considered as subspecies or varieties were raised to the rank of species and many new species were also described. Most of the species considered in these studies come from Northwest Africa. At present, therecords of the genus Buthus in Egypt from other regions than Sinai are questionable, but a new record from the region of Siwa is confirmed and the description of a new species, Buthus egyptiensis, is provided.

L ourenco, WR. (2012). A new species of Buthus Leach, 1815 from Egypt (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Entomol. Mott. Zool. Mus. Hamburg 16(187):11-18.

Thanks to professor Lourenco for sending me this paper!

Family Buthidae

The genus Brotheas in Brazil and a new species

Wilson Lourenco has recently published a geographical survey of the genus Brotheas C. L. Koch, 1837 (Chactidae) in Brazil. A new species is also described.

Brotheas tapajos Lourenco, 2012

A geographical survey is presented of the species of the genus Brotheas C. L. Koch, distributed in Brazilian Amazonia. Since some of these species are yet poorly characterized, diagnoses are proposed and their geographical distribution is discussed. A new species is also described on the basis of one male specimen collected in the state of Pará, Brazil. The new species, Brotheas tapajos, is characterized by reddish-brown coloration, the carapace only slightly convex and body and appendages with punctations.

Lourenco, WR. (2012). The genus Brotheas C. L. Koch, 1837 in Brazilian Amazonia, with a description of a new species from the State of Pará (Scorpiones: Chactidae). Entomol. Mitt. Zool. Mus.Hamburg 16 (187):1-10.

Thanks to professor Lourenco for sending me this paper!

Family Chactidae

A new species of Pseudochactas from Afghanistan

Photo: Michael Misch (C)

The discovery of the enigmatic Pseudochactas ovchinnikovi Gromov, 1998 from Central Asia and a new family, Pseudochactidae, was undoubtedly one of the most important discoveries in scorpion systematics in recent times. Now a second species of this genus has been described from south-central Afghanistan.

Pseudochactas mischi Soleglad, Kovarik & Fet, 2012 (Pseudochactidae)

The new species is named after Michael Misch, who collected the name species in Afghanistan and made it available to the authors of this paper. Congratulations, Michael, and thanks for your contributions to The Scorpion Files!

A new species of the rare genus Pseudochactas Gromov, 1998 is described from south-central Afghanistan. The species, P. mischi, sp. nov., is compared in detail to its northern sister species P. ovchinnikovi Gromov, 1998, known from Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. P. mischi, sp. nov. is a smaller, lighter colored species and has a considerably more robust metasoma, telson, and pedipalp chelae. Biogeographical observations on the genus Pseudochactas are provided.

Soleglad, ME, Kovarik F & Fet, V. (2012). A new species of Pseudochactas from Afghanistan (Scorpiones: Pseudochactidae). Boletin de la SEA, (50):89-98.

Thanks to Michael Soleglad for sending me this paper!

Family Pseudochactidae

05 July, 2012

New Urodacus from Australia

Its holiday time, but I'm trying to post a message on the blog using a shaky internet connection from our cabin.

Erich Volschenk and co-workers have published a new Urodacus (Scorpionidae*) from western Australia.

Urodacus butleri Volschenk, Harvey & Prendini, 2012

*The status of the family Urodacidae is under discussion. Some authors have included the Urodacus in Scorpionidae and abolish the family, while others have retained Urodacidae as a valid family.

A new urodacid scorpion, Urodacus butleri, n. sp., is described from Barrow Island and the Pilbara bioregion of Western Australia. This species is unusually dark in color; it is compared and contrasted with three morphologically similar species, Urodacus manicatus (Thorell, 1876), Urodacus novaehollandiae Peters, 1861, and Urodacus planimanus Pocock, 1893.

Volschenk, ES, Harvey, MS & Prendini, L. (2012). A new species of Urodacus ((Scorpiones: Urodacidae) from Western Australia. American Museum Novitates (3748):1-18. [Free full text]

Thanks to Gerald Dupre for sending me this paper!

Family Scorpionidae